There is no consensus on the definition of cervical stenosis, but from the hysteroscopy point of view, it could defined as the cervix that present a difficult access and require special maneuvers to introduce the hysteroscope into the cervical canal. Perhaps, the definition proposed by Bandalf defining cervical stenosis when the cervical canal does not allow the passage of a Hegar dilator 2.5 mm is more objective. Stenosis of the external os has been defined when there is less than 4.5 mm expansion. Cervical stenosis and pain during the procedure, are the main causes of failure to perform in office hysteroscopy.
Acquired stenosis is the most common cause of cervical atresia and is related to age, hormonal status and previous surgical procedures on the cervix. Cervical stenosis may affect the external OS, the internal OS or the entire cervical canal. In all three locations, the most frequently affected by stenosis is the IO. Cervical stenosis is a condition that affects mainly postmenopausal women.